Intersectionality is a term which refers to a multiple and interconnected with layers of existence and identity such as political, social, gender and also includes ranges from race, class, sexuality, culture and religion to one’s relationship to another. Thus, it offers a rich framework for contemplating with the world and others which indeed its analyses are so influential and indicate a strong perception for feminists to unwavering in commitment.
In fact, intersectionality has been displaced in the category of “women’ altogether. Theoretically, intersectionality has been emerged in term of Black feminism writings since the nineteenth century and continues to evolve into today by numerous women of colors.
An article in “Feminist Review” was published arguing against ‘triple oppression’ among the British Black Feminist (organisation of Women of African and Asian Descent (OWAAD) (Bryan, et. al, 1985). Before discussing to further recent research, it is important to sum up the original debate. Triple oppression notion was a claim for Black Women suffering from three different oppressions which is not clear in the OWAAD. On the other words, they suffer oppression as: Black, women and members of working classes.
An intersectional analyses was offered by African American Women since the nineteenth century and has laid a claim to U.S traditional scholar which began in the decades. Earlier scholarship of Black Women is not acknowledged and ignored which was not believed as priority. In fact, one argument against to there was no such thing suffering from oppression ‘as Black’ and ‘as women’. In the concrete of oppression, as a ‘ Black person’ is always intermeshed in social divisions such as gender, race, age, nationality, immigration, status and geography. It was felt the need by marginalised members as a reason of Black women which intersectionality analysis is known today ( Hardings, 1991).
In 1831, it was assumed by Maria Steward from a pamphlet publication that Black are inferior race while all Black women were called ‘the fair daughters of Africa’ – in union of supporting one another. In addition, Stewart also highlighted encouragement of economical independence among the Black women, at the same period, Sojouner Truth fought for women’s suffarge; race issue and gender issue. Thus, ‘The Interrogation of truth categorized women notices her race and own lived experiences. And, she claimed that Black Women’s rights should be prioritized and asserts if colored men get theirs rights, while women do not get theirs, there will be bad time about it which now comes out with Femen.
Kathryn T & Gines 2011, Black feminism and intersectional analyses: A defense of intersectionality, Philosophy Today; 55, pg 275-284, Penn State Univeristy, University of Park, PA 16802
Davis. NY 2006, Intersectionality and Feminist Politics, European Journal of Women’s Studies, Vol 13(3): 193-209, University of East London